Friday May 20, 2022

How ipov cards came into being

The invention of the principle of IP cards and their development was probably one of the most significant changes in electrical engineering, which occurred in the 20th century. As with other technical inventions, such as e.g. radio or television, deserved the development of IP cards by several inventors on those continents.

Their discovery and development would not have been possible without significant changes in electronics, cryptography and banking in the late 1970s.

Technical development has brought about revolutionary changes in computer technology. Semiconductors were miniaturized and used in all areas of human society, from the military to medical and consumer electronics. The production of the first personal sweats began, the size changed and the performance of the words sweat increased. Cryptography also changed from these changes. From the original exchange for the protection of the secrets of the army and the diplomat, it also expanded to the protection of commercial information.

Businesses and banks have begun to send large amounts of door information between their headquarters and branches in different countries and on many continents. Last but not least, banks have contributed to the development of IP cards. Non-cash wage payments introduced in the late 1960s in the United States, the United Kingdom, France and other European countries have led to an increase in banks’ spending on branches and a number of streams used as the main tool available to them.

These were the conditions that led to the first patents rubber ipovch. Banks searched securely and cheaply for off-line card payments.

Potky ipu

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The first test samples of microipchipes appeared in France in the mid-1970s, but their encounters date back to the late 1960s. He deserved several inventors in various cities of the world. Two nmet technicians Jurgen Dethlo. and Helmut Grottrupp patented an identified system in 1968 that used two systems: an identifier and an identifier. In 1970, he patented Kunitaka Arimur’s ipov cards on the other side of the globe in Japan.

In June 1970, American engineer JK Ellingboe of IBM patented the Active Electrical Card Device, which he described as an electronic credit card. The following year, Paul Castrucci (both from IBM) patented the Information Card. But Roland Moreno is generally considered to be the inventor of IP cards. This original French newspaper (editor of the magazine Chimie Actualites) founded the Societ International pour lInnovation Innovatron company in Pai in 1972. In one of his biographies, Moreno stated that his company had more than a client from the arrest.

The first idea for an IP card saw him in January 1974. His life changed on May 25, 1974, when he applied for a patent for an electronic ring that could be used for purchases in stores equipped with a special sensor. This ring will be able to charge cash at bank branches and ensure a secure way of payment. For the first demonstration of his invention to the bank in 1974, Moreno produced an electronic ring and a device that simulated a payment terminal in a store. But the banks were not his best, except for Jean-Claude Repolt, director of technical development at Crdit Industrie et Commercial, who advised him to use a credit card format for his payment method. Then his idea could be more interesting, because at that time French banks had a problem with unauthorized debits of clients on common methods.

The advice given by the French bank was therefore unusable. How to get the microprocessor into a thin plastic payment card (0.75 mm) then? Roland Moreno decided to give it a try and went to Spojench stt. To his surprise, however, he was advised to turn to the French company CII-Honywell Bull, which had only experience with the development and production of electronic systems (later Moreno valued his role in the United States as a waste of time). Bull handed Michel Ugon, the head of its development center, to try to develop Moren’s idea.

Michel Ugon was thrilled by this offer. Together with Moren, he developed the necessary technology and in 1975, produced the first seven pieces of microipip cards. They developed the first vending machine to receive IP cards. Moreno filed another 47 patents relating to IP cards and registered them in a total of 11 countries. In 1976, Bull bought licenses for IPov cards from his company Innovatron.

For mass production ip Bull developed in 1976 a new technology called TAB (Tape Automatic Bonding), which accelerated and improved production, reduced costs (more gold on contacts and more scrap). In April 1977, Bull founded the specialized subsidiary Bull CP8. Bull ml research and development and Bull CP8 ml ipov cards to manufacture and sell. In the same year, Michel Ugon expanded Moren’s idea of ​​memory ip cards and developed the first programmable ip card.

In June 1977, Bull made the first 4 Kb memory card from epoxy, and Ugon filed a patent for a card consisting of memory and a microprocessor (the first real smart card made by Bull two years later). I was convinced that the card should have a self-programmable microprocessor so that the external device could modify the information stored inside the card, said Michel Ugon, editor of Advanced Projects at Bull CP8.

In 1978, Michel Ugon patented his invention SPOM (Self Programmable One-chip Microcomputer), the world’s first self-programmable single-chip microprocessor, designed for use on bank cards. In the same year, the French government’s advisory board decided that the IP card was a French invention for many special students. The government then supported their development at Bull, where the French state was the majority owner, as well as supporting other products (such as Minitel).

In 19811986, the government invested more than 85 million French francs in the development of IP cards. Bull made memory cards using ip from. rmy Siemens (SIKART chip). On March 21, 1979, the first two-pin card (one ip ml microprocessor and one type of memory) was born in the Bull CP8 leads. The American card used the American 8-bit ip from Motorola model 3870 for microprocessor and model 2716 for EPROM memory. The development of these microprocessors was supported by the French technician Marc Lassus (later the founder of the maker of IP cards Gemplus) and the best American constructor of the microprocessor Arturo Kruger.

In July 1979, Bull CP8 made its first IP card presentation at the United States. He gave a special presentation for American Express. Banks and the company’s telecommunications became interested in the new technology. So they appeared gave the makers of IP cards. Shlumberger bought a 15% stake in Innovatron and set up a special division to switch cart cards to Cartes Memoires et Systmes.

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In June 1979, Member of Cartes Bancaires (CB) and Direction Gnrale des Tlcommunications (now France Telecom) announced the selection of trial memory cards. At the end of November, seven bids were submitted. companies: Bull CP8, Dassault, FlonicSchlumberger, IBM, Philips, Transac and Th omson. In 1980, the Groupement Carte à Mmoire (the Memory Card Group) was founded. The banks chose the companies around them to test their IP card technology. They were: Bull CP8, Flonic Schlumberger and Philips Data System. The trade association in Lyon joined the pilot project in June 1980, and the banks selected two cities, Blois and Caen.

Development of IP cards

spch ipovch cards, confirmed in 1984 by ordering 12.4 million cards for the association of French banks CB from. Bull CP8, led to the testing of new technology in some other countries. The following year, experimental projects were launched in five countries on the following continents:

Canada Royal Bank of Canada has introduced the Corporate Cash Management System, where password accesses have been securely stored on IP cards.
Nov Zland Asset card Ltd. Testovala ipovou kartu MasterCard.
The combined MasterCard tested the use of IP cards in Florida and Maryland for payment through payment terminals.
Itlie Tellcard was released for the World Ski Championships in Bormio in collaboration with the regional bank Credito Valtellinese.
Japan has led several leading banks to test IP cards with applications for Corporate Banking, Home Banking and videotext.

Today, it has been forgotten that in 1984, Norway became one of the pioneers of bank IP cards. At the time, Norwegian banks were facing problems associated with high telecommunications costs, which connected ATMs and payment terminals in Norway’s geographically diverse area. Under the leadership of Bergen Bank, a consortium of 10 pennies was formed, which tested the possibilities of using IP cards in Norway for off-line transactions. In the city of Lillestrm, 25 kilometers from Oslo, 5,500 hybrid cards from Bull CP8 (magnetic stripe + ip) were issued and banks installed 40 payment terminals, 15 public payphones, 10 terminals for charging pensions to ip and 10 information terminals (French Minitel technology).

Thomson, Crouzet and Flonic-Schlumberger also took part in the project. A total of 2 million IP cards were issued, but the project was eventually stopped because a reduction in telecommunication fee prices was achieved. On 18 February 1986, the Ministry of Defense of the French Republic issued a decree updated cryptography as a device and software designed to convert information or signals into unreadable form and inversion. At the same time, it required all persons who have cryptographic equipment and programs for business or private use to register them within three months of the issuance of this decree.

This decree has become as important in France as the development of the IP card itself. Without the state’s consent, ifrovac funds in banking have advanced, and in other commercial sectors, IP cards would not have spread. Similar laws as France then issued so gave stty. The ability of IP cards to store large amounts of information led the British travel and finance company Th omas Cook to use this technology in 1989. Bull CP8 made an IP memory card for her, which could serve as an electronic traveler. ip thus contained information on the client’s full trip (hotel address, flights, etc.).

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ryvek is from the bookEncyclopedia of payment cardsvydan nakladatelstvm City Publishing, who published publications in the FINANCE edition such as:
Make a investment, 2nd born ed
Investovn pro zatenky
Financial Mathematics Pro, 5.vydn

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